The Moors: African Rulers of the Iberian Peninsula from 711 AD to 1492 AD

Moors began to reign over the Spanish in 711 AD when an African army, under their leader Tariq ibn-Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from northern Africa and invaded the Iberian peninsula.

A European scholar sympathetic to the Spaniards remembered the conquest in this way:

”The reins of their horses were as fire, their faces black as pitch, their eyes shone like burning candles, their horses were swift as leopards and the riders fiercer than a wolf in a sheepfold at night . . . The noble Goths [the German rulers of Spain] were broken in an hour, quicker than tongue can tell. Oh luckless Spain!”

Quoted in Edward Scobie, ”The Moors and Portugal’s Global Expansion”, in Golden Age of the Moor, ed Ivan Van Sertima, US, Transaction Publishers, 1992, p.336

– British historian Basil Davidson wrote that there were no lands in the 8th century “more admired by its neighbours, or more comfortable to live in, than a rich African civilization which took shape in Spain”.

– Points of pride for people of African descent, we have ALWAYS been about learning. Education was universal in Moorish Spain, and was made available to all. Christian Europe however had a ninety-nine percent illiterate population, where even kings could neither read nor write. Moors had seventeen great universities! These were located in Almeria, Cordova, Granada, Juen, Malaga, Seville, and Toledo. At that time, Europe had only two universities.

– The Moors introduced paper to Europe and Arabic numerals, which replaced the clumsy Roman system.

– The Moorish rulers lived in sumptuous palaces, while the monarchs of Germany, France, and England dwelt in big barns, with no windows and no chimneys, and with only a hole in the roof for the exit of smoke. One such Moorish palace ‘Alhambra’ in Granada is one of Spain’s architectural masterpieces. Alhambra was the seat of Muslim rulers from the 13th century to the end of the 15th century. The Alhambra is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

– It was through Africa that the new knowledge of China, India, and Arabia reached Europe. The Moors brought the Compass from China into Europe.

– At its height, Córdova, the heart of Moorish territory in Spain, was the most modern city in Europe. The streets were well-paved, with raised sidewalks for pedestrians. During the night, ten miles of streets were well illuminated by lamps. (This was hundreds of years before there was a paved street in Paris or a street lamp in London.) Cordova had 900 public baths – we are told that a poor Moor would go without bread rather than soap!

”Although generations of Spanish rulers have tried to expunge this era from the historical record, recent archeology and scholarship now shed fresh light on the Moors who flourished in Al-Andalus for more than 700 years – from 711 AD until 1492. The Moorish advances in mathematics, astronomy, art, and agriculture helped propel Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the Renaissance.”


– The original “knights” of England were Black! –including the knights of King Arthur’s Round Table! That’s why they were called “knights” after the night or darkness of their skin.

– An African king named Gormund ruled Ireland during the Anglo-Saxon period in England reports the medieval historian Geoffrey of Monmouth.

– Halfdan the Black was the first Africoid king to unite Norway.

– When the British Isles were invaded by the Vikings some of these Norse raiders were Africoid. In fact, different varieties of ‘Viking’ Africans lived in Scandinavia during the middle ages and are frequently mentioned in Viking sagas.

– There were Black Huns! The dictionary describes the Huns as “a fierce barbaric race of Asiatic nomads who led by Attila, ravaged Europe in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D.” The Gothic writer Jordannes described their infamous leader, Attila the Hun as having “a flat nose and swarthy complexion.” He describes the types of Huns he had seen as “of dark complexion, almost black… broad shoulder, flat noses and small eyes.”

– The African Moors dominated southwest Europe during the Middle Ages for 700 years: 711-1492 A.D. African Moors ruling southwest Europe centuries, darkened whites in this area, especially Portugal, which was “the first example of a Negrito (African) republic in Europe.

– Moors ruling Scotland in the 10th century mixed with whites until the black skin color disappeared.

– The black blood type is common even in Nordic Europe where intermixing has been happening since antiquity.


Empress of Rome, Julia Agrippina. Mother of Emperor Nero



”There should be no doubt to anyone, that these Family Crests represent old Britain’s Black Elite, it’s most noble, wealthy and powerful families. Peasants and commoners did not have family Crests and Coats of Arms. Though there is disagreement as to which came first – the Crest or the Arms, but it seems likely that the crest came first, as a family or Clan ensign.”

Moor Westmoreland England Family Crest



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District Timba Tuesday!

Posting from the DMV by DistrictTimba

✭ “Somos” by Clave Cubana Timbera   Clave Cubana Timbera con Somos.

This group based in Argentina is playing straight up Timba throughout the world… Check out their latest hit from the CD “Llegó La Clave” 

   “Trece” Alexander Abreu y Habana de Primera

Here’s a District Timba pick from one of the greatest superbandas of Cuban Timba at the moment.  Alexander Abreu is the voice and trumpet of Habana de Primera… A prolific musician and vocalist, take a look at this live performance of Trece from the 2015 recording La Vuelta al Mundo

Pupy y los que Son Son is a renown orchestra of popular Cuban dance music; created and directed by pianist and composer César Pedroso and this District Timba selection La Candela. When Pupi y Los Que Son Son debuted in 2001; Havana’s stages marked a new era of Timba.  Pupy conceived his sound by merging several instrumental formats, incorporating trumpets, violins and more with a strictly melodic, free  improvisational style and vocals by the very best soneros.

✭ Preguntando Por Ti- El MOLA


✭ Duplicándote La Dosis*  – TimbaLive

✭  Las Gallinas* Bárbaro Fines y Su Mayimbe

✭  La Moda* Formell y Los Van Van


✭  El Daño Ya Está Hecho*– AC Jazz Project

  La Más Linda* Take Two Bros.

✭  Los Hijos De La Noche* Manolito Simmonet y Su Trabuco